13: Islam - Modernity, Reform, & WW1

Pakistan

National Monument
Islamabad, Pakistan

Key Terms

  • Salafism
  • Wahhabism in Saudi Arabia
  • Secular Modernism
  • Islamic Modernism
  • Jamal al-Din al-Afghani
  • Industrial Revolution
  • Constitutionalism in Iran
  • Nationalism in Pakistan
  • Aremenian Genocide
  • Sykes-Picot Agreement

RELI 3320 | Intro to Islam

It is not religious beliefs — right or wrong — that are opposed to culture and material progress. Rather, it is those beliefs which prohibit the learning of sciences, the earning of one's livelihood, and the spreading of cultural awareness.
Jamal al-Din al-Afghani



Islam’s 3 Responses to Modernity
Ansary Ch. 13

I. Salafism: Modernity is corrupting Islam

  • Orthodoxy | Greek: ortho (right) doxia (belief)
    • C.f., Christianity: belief is more important than practice
    • Islamic scholastic theology: kalam (عِلْم الكَلام)
      • “pure speculative theology” often irrelevant to a lived Islamic life
      • Ulama: what’s key is how a Muslim lives her life

  • Orthopraxy | Greek: ortho (right) praxis (practice)
    • C.f., Judaism: practice (Jewish law) is more important than belief
    • Islamic law: fiqh (فقه)
      • Aims to be practical and relevant
      • Changes as the times and historical context change
      • Different schools of fiqh across the world

II. Modern Secularism: Islam is corrupting Modernity

  • Orthodoxy | Greek: ortho (right) doxia (belief)
    • C.f., Christianity: belief is more important than practice
    • Islamic scholastic theology: kalam (عِلْم الكَلام)
      • “pure speculative theology” often irrelevant to a lived Islamic life
      • Ulama: what’s key is how a Muslim lives her life

  • Orthopraxy | Greek: ortho (right) praxis (practice)
    • C.f., Judaism: practice (Jewish law) is more important than belief
    • Islamic law: fiqh (فقه)
      • Aims to be practical and relevant
      • Changes as the times and historical context change
      • Different schools of fiqh across the world


III. Islamic Modernism: Modern thinking + Islamic values

  • Orthodoxy | Greek: ortho (right) doxia (belief)
    • C.f., Christianity: belief is more important than practice
    • Islamic scholastic theology: kalam (عِلْم الكَلام)
      • “pure speculative theology” often irrelevant to a lived Islamic life
      • Ulama: what’s key is how a Muslim lives her life

  • Orthopraxy | Greek: ortho (right) praxis (practice)
    • C.f., Judaism: practice (Jewish law) is more important than belief
    • Islamic law: fiqh (فقه)
      • Aims to be practical and relevant
      • Changes as the times and historical context change
      • Different schools of fiqh across the world


The Industrial Revolution of the West
Ansary Ch. 14

  • Orthodoxy | Greek: ortho (right) doxia (belief)
    • C.f., Christianity: belief is more important than practice
    • Islamic scholastic theology: kalam (عِلْم الكَلام)
      • “pure speculative theology” often irrelevant to a lived Islamic life
      • Ulama: what’s key is how a Muslim lives her life

  • Orthopraxy | Greek: ortho (right) praxis (practice)
    • C.f., Judaism: practice (Jewish law) is more important than belief
    • Islamic law: fiqh (فقه)
      • Aims to be practical and relevant
      • Changes as the times and historical context change
      • Different schools of fiqh across the world


Constitutionalism in Iran
Ansary Ch. 14

  • Orthodoxy | Greek: ortho (right) doxia (belief)
    • C.f., Christianity: belief is more important than practice
    • Islamic scholastic theology: kalam (عِلْم الكَلام)
      • “pure speculative theology” often irrelevant to a lived Islamic life
      • Ulama: what’s key is how a Muslim lives her life

  • Orthopraxy | Greek: ortho (right) praxis (practice)
    • C.f., Judaism: practice (Jewish law) is more important than belief
    • Islamic law: fiqh (فقه)
      • Aims to be practical and relevant
      • Changes as the times and historical context change
      • Different schools of fiqh across the world


Nationalism in the Ottoman Ashes
Ansary Ch. 14

  • Orthodoxy | Greek: ortho (right) doxia (belief)
    • C.f., Christianity: belief is more important than practice
    • Islamic scholastic theology: kalam (عِلْم الكَلام)
      • “pure speculative theology” often irrelevant to a lived Islamic life
      • Ulama: what’s key is how a Muslim lives her life

  • Orthopraxy | Greek: ortho (right) praxis (practice)
    • C.f., Judaism: practice (Jewish law) is more important than belief
    • Islamic law: fiqh (فقه)
      • Aims to be practical and relevant
      • Changes as the times and historical context change
      • Different schools of fiqh across the world